The Pug breed is one of the oldest breeds and has flourished true to his breed down through the ages from before 400 B.C. They have always been domesticated and have endeared themselves to mankind becoming man and families best friend.
You can see from the early pictures how snout is longer and the face wrinkles less defined. The modern pug’s appearance probably started to change after 1860 when a new wave of pugs were imported directly from China. These Pugs had shorter legs and the modern-style pug nose.
The truth of how the Pug came into existence is shrouded in mystery. Authorities are agreed that they of Oriental origin with some basic similarities to the Pekingese. China where the breed was the pet of the Buddhist monasteries in Tibet, is it’s earliest known source. The pug breed next appeared in Japan, and then in Europe, where it became the favorite for various royal courts.
In Holland the Pug became the official dog of the House of Orange after one of the breed saved the life of William, Prince of Orange. His pug gave alarm at the approach of the Spaniards at Hermingny in 1572. An effigy of the monarch with his Pug at his feet is carved over William’s tomb in Delft Cathedral. Later, when William II landed at Torbay to be crowned King of England, his retinue included his beloved Pugs. They became the fashionable breed for generations.
By 1790, the Pug breed’s popularity had spread to France where Josephine, wife of Napoleon, depended on her Pug “Fortune” to carry secret messages under his collar to her husband. This was while she was imprisoned at Les Carmes. Fortune must have had a possessive nature, for it is said that he bit the future Emperor when he entered the bedchamber on his wedding night.
Called the “Mopshond” (from the Dutch word “to grumble”) in Holland, “Mops” in Germany and “Carlin” in France, the origin of the name “Pug Dog” has a variety of explanations. The most likely is that which likens the dog’s facial expression to that of the marmoset monkeys that were popular pets of the early 1700s and were known as Pugs; hence “Pug Dog” to distinguish dog from monkey. The appellation of “Pug Dog” has endured to this day.
In 1860, British soldiers sacked the Imperial Palace in Peking, and dogs of the Pug breed and Pekingese type were brought back to England. This was the first time since the early 16th century that dogs in any great number had been brought out of China.
“Black Pugs were imported from China and exhibited for the first time in England in 1886. They quickly become popular with Lady Brassey and Queen Victoria owning the little dogs and increasing their demand in high-society.”
In nineteenth century England, the pug breed flourished under the patronage of Queen Victoria. Her many pugs, which she bred herself, included Olga, Pedro, Minka, Fatima and Venus. Her involvement with dogs in general helped to establish the Kennel Club which was formed in 1873. Queen Victoria favoured apricot and fawn colors and this passion for pugs was passed on to many other members of the Royal family.
The Pug breed was accepted for registration with the American Kennel Club in 1885. The ‘Pug Dog Club of America’ was founded in 1931 and was later recognized by the ‘American Kennel Club’ that same year. In 1981, the pug ‘Dhandys Favorite Woodchuck’ won the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show in the United States- the only pug to have won there since the show began in 1877. The World Champion, or Best in Show at the 2004 World Dog Show held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was a pug named ‘Double D Cinoblu’s Masterpiece’.
Below are the standards by which Pugs are judged to be best of breed.
Pug breed standards
|Group:||Group 1 (Toys)|
|General Appearance:||Decidedly square and cobby, it is ‘multum in parvo’ shown in compactness of form, well knit proportions and hardness of muscle, but never to appear low on legs.|
|Characteristics:||Great charm, dignity and intelligence.|
|Temperament:||Even tempered, happy and lively disposition.|
|Head And Skull:||Head relatively large, round, not apple-headed, with no indentation of skull. Muzzle relatively short, blunt, square, not upfaced. Nose fairly large with well open nostrils. Wrinkles on forehead clearly defined without exaggeration. Eyes or nose never adversely affected or obscured by over nose wrinkle. Pinched nostrils and heavy or over nose wrinkle is unacceptable and should be heavily penalised.|
|Eyes:||Dark, not too large, round in shape, soft and solicitous in expression, very lustrous, and when excited, full of fire. Never protruding, exaggerated or showing white. Free from obvious eye problems.|
|Ears:||Thin, small, soft like black velvet. Two kinds – ‘Rose ear’ – small drop ear which folds over and back to reveal the burr. ‘Button ear’ – ear flap folding forward, tip lying close to skull to cover opening. Preference given to latter.|
|Mouth:||Slightly undershot. Wry mouth, teeth or tongue showing all highly undesirable. Wide lower jaw with incisors almost in a straight line.|
|Neck:||Slightly arched to resemble a crest, strong, thick with enough length to carry head proudly.|
|Forequarters:||Legs very strong, straight, of moderate length, and well under body. Shoulders well sloped.|
|Body:||Short and cobby, wide in chest. Ribs well sprung and carried well back. Topline level neither roached nor dipping.|
|Hindquarters:||Legs very strong, of moderate length, with good turn of stifle, well under body, straight and parallel when viewed from rear.|
|Feet:||Neither so long as the foot of the hare, nor so round as that of the cat; well-split-up toes; the nails black.|
|Tail:||High set, curled tightly over hip. Double curl highly desirable.|
|Gait/Movement:||Viewed from in front should rise and fall with legs well under shoulder, feet keeping directly to front, not turning in nor out. From behind action just as true. Using forelegs strongly putting them well forward with hindlegs moving freely and using stifles well. A slight unexaggerated roll of hindquarters typifies gait.|
|Coat:||Fine, smooth, soft, short and glossy, neither harsh, off-standing or woolly.|
|Colour:||Silver, apricot, fawn or black. Each clearly defined, to make contrast complete between colour, trace (black line extending from occiput to tail) and mask. Markings clearly defined. Muzzle or mask, ears, moles on cheeks, thumb mark or diamond on forehead and trace as black as possible.|
|Sizes:||Ideal weight: 6.3-8.1 kg (14-18 lbs).|
|Faults:||Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.|
|Notes:||Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.|